Module 0

Overview and Guide

Generalities Team Guides
Introduction Partners Reading Guide
Presentation of the modules Module leaders Recommendations
  Authors Pedagogical Concept


Water plays an increasingly important role in our societies. Learning to manage water also means succeeding in mastering its scarcity but also its excesses, in ensuring the supply of drinkable water, for agriculture and industry, in using it to create energy and maintaining the quality of our environment.

Access to water resources is vital in developed and developing countries. Its use and balanced distribution is considered to be one of the greatest challenges to the new millennium. Surface and groundwater as well as the hydraulic potential of a country, although renewable, are limited and threatened by industrial, urban and agricultural activities.

The main goal of VICAIRE (VIrtual CAmpus In hydrology and water REsources management) project is to train specialists in the field of water resources capable of managing surface and groundwater resources in countries worldwide, whatever their geographical and socio-economical situation, in the best possible way. The Virtual Campus will encourage increased exchanges between researchers who are often very widely separated from each other geographically.

The program is oriented to the knowledge of actual and future methods that allow the resolution of problems connected to water protection and management in urban or rural areas, aiming to ensure drinkable water supplies and to better manage drainage and irrigation.

Courses in the field of hydrology and water resources management are divided into many sub-disciplines in the World. The relevant institutes of the universities domain therefore research and teach in a very sectoral way.

To ensure the balance of water resources and a harmonious and sustainable development of our societies demands a comprehensive overview of water management. This comprehensive approach will be significantly enhanced by the Virtual Campus project. In particular, it will enable teachers and students to discuss this increasingly important field of water resources management in an interdisciplinary fashion and to fill gaps in knowledge in a cost-effective way through networking. The results of current research work will flow directly into the teaching of the course through the virtual platform and thus will rapidly become available to a large community of users.

VICAIRE is being developed primarily in English so that it is available for all our language regions (which are represented in our network of partners). At a later phase this will also make the Virtual Campus accessible internationally.

Presentation of the modules

The course content has been distributed over 5 Modules:

Module Description Keywords
0 Overview and guide
This is the window speeds up at present. This module reminds the principles of distance learning, the pedagogical objectives, the communication tools, a concept and a guide to VICAIRE, the preliminary definitions and terminology and a bibliography.

Basic Hydrology
Module 1A, Basic Hydrology, is an introduction to the water cycle processes such as precipitation, evaporation, transpiration, infiltration, groundwater flow and surface runoff.
It is primarily designed as a reference text for students in civil or agricultural engineering or geography, and it is believed that it can assist well the practicing engineer.
The Module 1A is divided into 10 chapters. In chapter 1 the concept of hydrologic cycle, the water budget equation, and a brief history of the development of hydrology as a science are introduced.
In chapter 2 the definitions of watershed and stream network, and their features are introduced. The influence of those features on hydrological processes is discussed.
In chapter 3 the precipitation regime is presented.
In chapter 4 the evaporation and evapotranspiration processes which maintain a climatically balance at planetary level and plays an important role as part of hydrological cycle are described.
In chapter 5 the infiltration process, its characteristics, the factors which influence the infiltration, and models for estimation of the infiltration rate are introduced.
In chapter 6 the hydrological regime of a stream, the "rapid" flow (runoff and subsurface flow), the "slow" flow (groundwater), the ice and snow melting contribution to the stream flow, and the sediment transport are presented.
In chapter 7 the surface and subsurface water storage, general characteristics of lakes, and water stock estimation (water in liquid and solid phase) are considered.
In chapter 8 the hydrological processes in a catchment such as the response time, the time of concentration, the base time, the characteristics of a hydrograph, the unit hydrograph and its derivative models (developed by Dooge, Diskin, Singh, Kulandaiswamy) are discussed.
In chapter 9 the instrumentation used by the climatologists, hydrologists, and the civil engineers to measure and monitorize the rainfall, the evaporation, the evapotranspiration, the infiltration and the flow is presented.
In chapter 10 the hydrological data base, organization of the data base (data archive and publication), data control, error research and measurement correction are considered.

hydrological cycle

concentration time

hydrographical network


net rain

water flux

base flow


water storage

unit hydrograph

1b Engineering Hydrology
The Engineering Hydrology is an application of the science hydrology to engineering problems related to water cycle. It pays a particular attention to the runoff phase, starting from the precipitation and following the way of the water from the slope till the sea. Because Engineering Hydrology has a practical finalization it uses mathematical models, emphasizing the hydrologic equations at all phases of the above-mentioned transformations.
The purpose of this module is to present the main concepts of the Engineering Hydrology, used in the dimensionning and management of dams, reservoirs, dikes, diversions and other waterworks. The river basins represent huge natural systems, characterized by input (precipitation mainly but also energy), a structure of transformation (ground surface, soil layer, aquifers, the river network) and output (discharges, but also evapotranspiration).
After the basic concepts of the system theory one presents the design storm and its connection with the design discharge. The shape and the magnitude of design storm according to different methods are deemed. The historical precipitations and the design storm as well as the spatio-temporal analysis of 24 hour-rainfalls are equally evoked.
The following chapters present the main hydrological processes: the infiltration and the related notion of production function, the transformation of the effective rainfall into flow hydrograph and the corresponding transfer function, and finally the flood propagation along the rivers using both hydrological and hydraulic approach.
These different processes are integrated in mathematical models to simulate the hydrological rainfall-runoff processes. A special chapter is dedicated to different models used in Engineering Hydrology: statistic and deterministic models, linear and non-linear models, analytical and empirical models, continuous and discrete models, distributed and lumped models.
The flood wave models chapter was given a special attention, the floods being one of the most catastrophic phenomenon related to water cycle. The importance of studying the floods and the difficulties met in tackling this problem is first highlighted. Then, the specific methods and models applied to small-size, medium-size and large size catchments are considered.. The topologic scheme of the basin is used to share large and medium size basin in order to apply the deterministic conceptual models. The superposition assumption of flood waves in nodal points of the river continuum together with the routing procedures are applied to finally obtain the flow hydrographs. The medium and low flow models are very important for evaluating the water resources in order to find the best way for the water allocation. Two kinds of problems are presented: evaluating the low flows based on the laws of depletion exponential curves, and the monthly flow forecasting. The important role of forest and its impact on the main component of the water balance, namely, interception, evapotranspiration, infiltration, is quantitatively described in a special chapter. Finally, Urban Hydrology deals with the fluxes and the water balance in urban areas. The different models for assessing the runoff due to the rainstorms that fall over the urban areas and the transport of pollutants along the urban network are presented. Operational research methods used in the mathematical models parameters calibration are shortly presented in the last chapter.
Of course, this module is only a brief introduction in the mathematical modelling of one of the most complex systems, which concern the engineers: the river basins as natural systems. Every chapter of this module could have been a book of its own; and there are also many other problems that were not deliberately included. The authors apologize for their choice in developing only the bases of this wonderful science, which is the Engineering Hydrology.


design storm


mathematical model


production function

routing wave



transfer function



2 Qualitative Hydrology
The module " Qualitative hydrology " contents 12 chapters in which the following main tasks are discussed : formation of water quality; transport of solutes in river and streams; pollution of water; management of water quality and eco-hydrological consequences from the pollution of waters in streams and rivers.
Water quality formation is discussed in chepters 3,4,5. In this chapters the important role of the hydrologic cycle of the water quality formation is pointed out. In this link cycle of main chemical elements in nature and their role in formation of chemical composition and quality of water are analyzed. The role of the climatic and hydrological factors, conditions in the catchements and main processes, that form kind, quantity, and dynamics of the macro- mezzo- and micro components flowing into the streams and rivers are explained . Special attention of the role of the ratio between sources of supply and flow regime for the formation of specific hydrochemical composition and hydrochemical regime in streams and river is separated.
The formation, regime, quantity and movement of sediments and the temperature of water and theirs significant for quality of water are discussed in chapter 6.
In chapter 6 and 7 main sources of pollution, transport of polluted substances and self - purification of streams and rivers are presented. Special attention of water quality formation and spatial - temporary changes of the water quality in urban areas is separated .
The major processes / physical and geochemical / affecting of solutes in river and streams and the complex interaction between the physical processes and the geochemical reactions are described in chapter 8.
In chapters 9 and 10 water quality modeling base principal and relevant model features are introduced ; current generations of water quality modeling tools are described and guidance in model selection are offered. A spatial water quality assessment system for comprehensive catechement area management are presented. Water quality management at river basin level is described using the Integrated Water Resources Management concept and the new driver as economic analysis. The attention will be focused on the quality of "blue water" and "green water".
In the last chapter / 11 / the role and significant of eco-hydrological status of surface water for sustainable development of the water ecosystems and safety supply are explained. The schemes of influence of the pollutants upon the species and ecosystems as a whole are described. The change which occur in the structure and functional parameters of the water ecosystem, as a result of anthropogenic pressure in streams and rivers are described . Some indicators for eco-hydrological consequences are given.

biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)




hydrogen-ion concentration





sediment concentration

sediment yield


total dissolved solids (tds)


water conservation

water quality

3 Groundwater Hydrology
The goal of this course is to provide students the basic knowledge in groundwater hydrology. Frequently, the hydrologic cycle is visualised having in mind mainly the the surface component, because of its strong impact on the economy and on the society through flods and droughts. Even Hydrology as a scientific discipline is understood as the study of the surface waters. A minor attention is paid to the ground components of this cycle, though their importance for the nature and human life is may be more important. It is enough to mention the basic flow of the rivers, the groundwater stored in the aquifers being used for water supply, or the soil humidity without which the vegetation existence would be impossible. The hydrogeology is studying the groundwater movement mainly in the saturated media, the natural recharge, although very important, being over-simplified. The agronomy and land reclamation are interested only by the soil humidity, seldom neglecting the impact of the water losses from the irrigated areas on the groundwater dynamics.The groundwater hydrology integrates all these components of the water cycle, paying attention both to the water movement in the unsaturated zone and in saturated media. Due to human activity related to agriculture, industry and transportation, the soil pollution and consequently the groundwater pollution is continuously increasing, the groundwater cycle being intimately related to the pollutants transport. So, the groundwater hydrology means the dynamics of water and pollutants transport in both soils and aquifers. The course begins with a description of fundaments concerning the soils and aquifers, describing the main types of porous media formations. After that, the hydrodynamics phenomena are presented, obtaining the diffusivity equation for saturated media and Richards equation for unsaturated media. Because of their practical and theoretical importance, the physical parameters of soil and aquifers, as well as their practical determination are treated in detail. The equation describing the aquifers and soil pollution is obtained after the presentation of the main mechanisms. A particular interest presents the problem of polluted aquifers rehabilitation, being evocated some of the most used methods for pollution control and the cleaning of the porous formations. The principles of the numerical methods used for solving the flow and the transport equations both in saturated and unsaturated media are briefly presented. For a better understanding of the groundwater hydrology problems, the course ends by some case studies presentation.



Darcy law

hydraulic gradient

hydraulic head

matrix potential


storage coeffficient


water table

4 Management of Water Resources
The Management of Water Resources (MWR) module consists of eight chapters.
The first chapter is devoted to consideration of the state of the world water resources, the planetary water cycle and water balance.
The second chapter is dealing with the water economy complex, i.e. natural and technical economic system aimed at provision of humanity with water and at water resources protection.
In the third chapter is given an analysis of legislative and juridical documentation dealing with fundamentals of exploitation, protection and management of water resources, mainly in NIS.
The fourth chapter deals with the strategy of water resources management on the basis of water resources management on the basis of water economy balance and systems analysis of management alternatives on the level of the state, region, a separate enterprise.
The firth chapter is devoted to the water resources monitoring as a starting basis for water resources management.
The sixth chapter outlines the main problems of water resources protection against pollution and depletion and trends towards solution of these problems.
The seventh chapter gives data on theoretical and practical methods for management of water resources, e.g. application of a database, geographical information system (GIS), modelling, optimal management methods, risk evaluation and management.
The eighth chapter considers problems of water resources management under emergency situations, such as dry years and water deficit caused by low flow, and flooding caused by high flows.
To each chapter is added a list of question for self-analysis of comprehension and for discussions. Some examples of typical problems solution are also given. Bibliographical references are provided.
The module has been formatted in the framework of project “Virtual campus in hydrology and water resources (VICAIRE)” funded by Swiss National Science Foundation.

Sustainable development

Water resources – WR

Water cycle

Water balance fresh water balance

Water economy complex

Water legislation, economic and ecological constrains

WRM strategy

Mathematical modelling in WRM

Criteria of WRM

System analysis in WRM

Monitoring in WR

Protection of WR

Database in WRM

Geographical Information Systems GIS

Tools of WRM

WRM for low flow and high flow periods

WEC management at extreme floods

Each chapter presents :


Team 1:
Institute of Soil and Water resources Management (Hydrology and Land Improvement Laboratory) EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland

More than 7600 people are working at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology of Lausanne (EPFL), as students, scientists, professors, technical and administrative staff. These are committed to 12 teaching and research disciplines: civil engineering, environmental engineering, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, physics, chemistry, mathematics, material sciences and engineering, architecture, computer science, micro-engineering and communication systems.

The Hydrology and Land Improvement Laboratory is part of the Environmental Science and Technology Institute (ISTE). Its research is intended to improve the understanding of fundamental processes and the hydrological behaviour of watersheds and to develop methodological approaches and adequate techniques for design, planning and management of a wide spectrum of land, soil and water works including the assessment of the related environmental impacts

1015 Lausanne

Phone : (+41) 21 693 37 31
Fax : (+41) 21 693 37 39

Team 2:
Technical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest, Romania (TUCEB)

Higher education in Civil Engineering in Romania came into being in 1818 with a School for Land Surveyors, which was followed in 1864 by The School of Bridges and Roads, Mines and Architecture,transformed in 1888 into The National School of Bridges and Roads. In 1921 it became the Polytechnic School of Bucharest where civil engineers were trained in the Division of Civil Engineering, which was named The Faculty of Civil Engineering in 1938. As a result of Education Reform in 1948, the Faculty of Civil Engineering separated from the Polytechnic School and became an independent higher education establishment called the Civil Engineering Institute Bucharest. In1994 it adopted the present name-The Technical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest, the only Romanian university devoted entirely to engineering education in civil engineering and related fields.

124, Bd. Lacul Tei
Bucharest 7230

Phone : (+40) 1 242 12 08
Fax : (+40) 1 242 07 81
(+40) 1 242 08 66

Team 3:
University Timisoara, Faculty of Hydrotechnics, Romania

The "Politehnica" University of Timisoara is one of the largest and top universities in Romania and well known among the technical universities in Central and Eastern Europe. For over 80 years it has had an outstanding reputation built on the academic programmes promoted, the research carried out, the support given to its students and the physical environment.

The "Politehnica" University of Timisoara comprises of the following faculties of engineering: Automation and Computer Science, Electronics and Telecommunications, Electrical, Industrial Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Civil and Architecture, Hydrotecnics, Management in Production and Transportation, Mechanical. All the faculties deliver up-to-date and high quality academic programmes in engineering sciences for undergraduates, as well as for advanced studies.

An open and distance education system, in different areas and languages, has been implemented through the Regional Centre for Open and Distance Learning of the university in the recent years.

The university offers a wide range of facilities such as: the University Library, a TV programme called Teleuniversitaria, a publishing house, a hotel, hostels, refectories, sport and leisure centres.

"Politehnica" University of Timisoara
Piata Victoriei, No. 2
1900 Timisoara

phone: +40 256 220371
fax: +40 256 190321

Team 4:
Technical University "Gheorghe Asachi" of Iasi (T.U.I.), Romania

The "Gheorghe Asachi" Technical University of Iasi (T.U.I. for short) has the oldest tradition in engineering education in Romania.

In 1813 the scholar Gheorghe Asachi set up the first centre for technical education taught in Romanian, beginning with a civil engineering class which was later developed within the Michaelian Academy (1835) and the "Alexandru Ioan Cuza" University in Iasi.

The "Gh. Asachi" Polytechnic Institute was founded in 1937 as a separate institution, drawing together a number of engineering departments in a independent institution, in 1991 it adopted the present name - The "Gheorghe Asachi" Technical University.

Our University has over 1200 teaching staff and researchers who provide training more than 11.000 students within ten faculties, two colleges and a post graduate school, as it follows: Automatic Control and Computer Science Engineering, Industrial Chemistry Engineering, Civil Engineering and Architecture, Mechanical Equipment Design and Manufacture, Electronics and Telecommunications Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Hydrotechnics Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Science and Engineering of Materials, Textile and Leather Technology Engineering, Technical College no.1, Technical College no.2, Postgraduate School of Management.

The University offers all the facilities for accommodation, health service, library service, recreation and sports.

Technical University of Iasi (T.U.I.), Faculty of Hydrotechnics
63-65, D. Mangeron Blvd.
6600 IASI

Phone/Fax : +40 32 231 041

Team 5:
Sophia University "St Kliment Ohridski", Geology and Geography Faculty ; National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology ; Institute of Water Problems, Bulgaria.

The Sofia University is the first school of higher education in Bulgaria. Its history represents a continuation in centuries of cultural and educational tradition in this country. It is the largest and most prestigious educational and scientific centre in Bulgaria, offering 72 degree courses in humanities and sciences.
The department Climatology and Hydrology belongs to the Faculty of Geology and Geography. The hydrological researches at the department are mainly oriented on the regime of runoff, the flow variation under the anthropogenic activities; self-organization in drainage system fractal in drainage basin; Water resources management and Use and protection of the water.

The Institute of Water Problems is engaged with theoretical and applied investigations in the field of complex and optimal utilization and conservation of the water resources as well as assists and takes part in the application of the scientific results to practice. The Institute of Water Problems has had an important participation in the planning, design, construction and operation of large scale water resource system and hydraulic structure. The principal scientific researches are directed towards solving the problems concerning rational utilization, management and operation of the water resources, ecological aspects of the water resources utilization , GIS and information and expert systems for water management.

National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology (NIMH) is the official name of the hydrometeorological service in Bulgaria. Regular meteorological observations have begun since 1887 and systematic hydrological measurements are available since 1920. Nowadays the main networks are: Meteorological network with 31 synoptic stations including 5 stations on mountain; 132 climatic stations; 373 rainfall stations; Agrometeorological network with 33 agrometeorological; 4 forest stations; 109 phenological posts; Hydrological network with 236 hydrological stations; 595 wells and springs stations for groundwater; 112 stations for suspended sediment samplings, organic matter and 61 stations for grain-size determination ; Air and water pollution network with 1 background pollution station in Rojen and 224 sampling posts for surface water pollution monitoring and etc.

Sofia University
"St.Kliment Ohridski "
Faculty of Geology and Geography
1504 Sofia, 15 Tsar Osvoboditel Blvd.

phone: (+359 2) 9308 217
fax: (+359 2) 9446 487

Team 6:
Kharkiv State Technical University of Civil Engineering and Architecture (KSTUCA), Ukrainia

The Kharkiv State Technical University of Civil Engineering and Architecture belongs to the leading Ukrainian educational institutions of civil engineering and it is one of the major centers of the building science in the country. A great success of the University in different spheres is connected with a traditionally highly qualified and united staff containing a lot of outstanding teachers and scientists. Nearly 80% of them are professors and Ph.D. scholars.

The University has 7 faculties, 37 departments, a research and project sector, postgraduate department, laboratories, a computer center, a library.
The University trains the highly qualified specialists in 14 specialities. Among them:

  • Ecology in civil engineering Water supply,
  • rational use and protection of water resources,
  • canalization Information systems in management.

University prepares bachelors, engineers, holders of Master's degree. The main attention in the process of education is paid towards training students in new marketing conditions similar to industrial ones. In the University students receive rather deep theoretical and special preparation. Teaching humanities, information sciences, foreign languages and physical preparation are of a great importance too.
The new information technologies are used in the processes of education as well as execution of complex course projects on the basis of individual tasks.
An essential attention is paid towards participation of the students in the research projects of the University departments and laboratories.

A great volume of scientific work including the scientific researches under the state program, is carried out at the Department of Life Security and Engineering Ecology (the Engineering - humanities faculty). The main problems of scientific researches are environmental protection, ecology control under rivers of the Azov-Black seas basin and developing the system of fire protection. The Ukrainian ecology organization of UNESKO was formed at the department. There is a post-graduate department at the faculty.
Scientific activities at the Water supply, canalization and hydraulics department (Sanitary-Technical faculty) are directed towards solution of the problems concerning cleaning of stagnant and natural water resources in cities and industrial enterprises, development of the rational designs for water supply and water disposal systems at the termal and atomic stations, economy of water resources and ecology control.

Kharkiv State Technical University of Civil Engineering and Architecture
61002 Sumskay street 40

Phone: 380 572 43 38 12
Fax: 380 572 43 20 17

Team 7:
Ukrainian Scientific Research Institute of Ecological Problems (USRIEP), Ukrainia

Ukrainian Scientific Research Institute of Ecological Problems (former All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Water Protection) is a major scientific organisation of the Ukrainian environment protection system. 18 research laboratories of the Institute have been involved in water resources management research. Currently, the Institute employs 360 researchers and engineers, including 8 Dr's. Sci. And 52 Ph.D.'s.

The main objective of the Institute activities has been to provide scientific support to implementation of the national environmental policy aimed at provision of sustainable use of natural resources and environmental safety.

The two-track research activities of the USRIEP include both seeking for solutions to major vital issues of rational use of water resources and water quality management in Ukraine and specific applied studies. Major water resources management research areas include:

  • Development of legal, regulatory, economic and institutional framework of water resources management (surface water and groundwater)
  • Water quality management and water quality modeling Regulation of water uses
  • Assessment of suitability and predicting surface and groundwater qualit
  • Review of water uses, development of national and regional water use management and protection programmes
  • Water resources management information support (data bases, GIS, management decision support systems)
  • Environmental monitoring of water resources, including analytical control, development of instrumentation and automatic control tools)
  • Environmental sustainability of aquatic ecosystems
  • Wastewater treatment.

In parallel with research studies, USRIEP has been actively involved in implementation of training programmes. The Institute has sustained the post-graduate training for specialists applying for Ph.D. title. A specialized Scientific Council has been established at the Institute to run the defense and qualification procedure for Ph.D. and Doctorate applicants specialised in technogenic safety.

Ukrainian Scientific Research Institute of Ecological Problems
Bakulin street 6

Phone: 380 572 194 682
Fax: 380 572 409 125

Team 8:
Technical University of Moldova, Faculty of Urban Engineering and Architecture, Chisinau, Moldova

Technical University of Moldova (TUM) was founded in 1964 based on the faculty of Engineering at the State University of Moldova. Its primary goal was to meet the growing dEarth of skilled engineers.
It is the only technical university in Moldova with a total enrollment of 12,000 students, and more than 1,000 professors, scientists and graduate students. The University comprises the following faculties:

  • Electronics and Computer Science
  • Automation and Telecommunications
  • Energetics
  • Mechanical
  • Management and Transportation
  • Civil Engineering
  • Technology
  • Urban Engineering and Architecture
  • Light Industry
A new department of Ecotechnics, Ecological Management, and Water Engineering was founded in 1996 as part of the Faculty of Urban Engineering and Architecture with the help of UNESCO and Cousteau foundation.

Almost all faculties at the University have groups for in depth study of foreign languages, who also take part in student exchange programs with other universities abroad.

Technical University of Moldova, Chisinau
Bd. Stefan al Mare 168
2004 Chisinau,
Republica Moldova

Phone: (3732) 247186
Fax: (3732) 247104

Module Leaders

Project leader: Prof. Musy - EPFL

Module Leader
1a Prof. Cretu - Uni. Timisoara
1b Prof. Stanescu - TUCEB
2 Prof. Zlatunova - Sofia Uni.
3 Prof. Drobot - TUCEB
4 Prof. Sherenkov - KSTUCA


Module 1a

Author(s) Institution
Corina ROSU Uni. Politehnica Timisoara
Gheorghe CRETU, Catalin NAGY, Flaminia BONCIA
Uni. Politehnica Timisoara
Uni. Gheorghe Asachi Iasi
Gheorghe CRETU, Catalin NAGY, Flaminia BONCIA
Uni. Politehnica Timisoara
Gheorghe CRETU, Catalin NAGY, Flaminia BONCIA
Uni. Politehnica Timisoara
Gheorghe CRETU, Catalin NAGY, Flaminia BONCIA
Uni. Politehnica Timisoara
Gheorghe CRETU, Catalin NAGY, Flaminia BONCIA
Uni. Politehnica Timisoara
Gheorghe CRETU, Catalin NAGY, Flaminia BONCIA
Uni. Politehnica Timisoara
Gheorghe CRETU, Catalin NAGY, Flaminia BONCIA
Uni. Politehnica Timisoara
Gheorghe CRETU, Catalin NAGY, Flaminia BONCIA
Uni. Politehnica Timisoara

Module 1b

Author(s) Institution
Radu POPA Polytechnica Univ. Buch.

Module 2

Author(s) Institution


Sofia University
Daniela ZLATUNOVA Sofia University


Sofia University
Ivan PENKOV Sofia University
Nely HRISTOVA Sofia University
Georgy GERGOV, Cveta KARAGIOZOVA Sofia University


Sofia University
Ivan PENKOV, Vania IONCHEVA Sofia University


Sofia University
Todor HRISTOV, Vania IONCHEVA Sofia University
Todor HRISTOV, Vania IONCHEVA Sofia University
Nely HRISTOVA Sofia University

Module 3

Author(s) Institution
Cornel DINU University of Bucharest
TUCEB, University of Bucharest
Alexandru DANCHIV, Florian ZAMFIRESCU University of Bucharest

Module 4

Author(s) Institution
Prof. Vladimir Sherenkov, Dr. Evgeny L. Makarovskiy, MS. Sergey K. Kuzin
Prof. Vladimir A.Sherenkov KSTUCA
Prof. Vladimir R. Lozanskiy USRIEP
Prof. Vladimir A.Sherenkov KSTUCA
Dr. Evgeny L. Makarovskiy USRIEP
MS. Sergey K. Kuzin KSTUCA
Dr. Evgeny L. Makarovskiy USRIEP
Prof. Vladimir A.Sherenkov, Prof. Todor Hristov, Prof. Radu Drobot KSTUCA, Sofia University, TUCEB


Web-designing (EPFL)

Anne Gillardin (2000-2001), Alain Beney (2001-2003), Colin Schenk (2003), Pascal Horton (2004-2005).

Pedagogical Concept

This course is meant for engineers (civil, environmental, agricultural, rural, etc.) and university graduates in Earth and environmental sciences and related fields (geography, geology, etc.) as well as graduates with university level or with equivalent title. The content of the course will start from the basic (first and second) stages and be considered as a prerequisite for postgraduate level.

Each student is free to manage his schedule. It is his responsibility to connect to the course, study and understand the topic, do the exercises, answer the questions and undergo the self-evaluation tests.

A computerized forum of discussions, meant as a forum of exchange, allows any student to ask questions, look for advice or comment freely on the course whenever opportune, at any time and even from outside EPFL. The answers are available and profitable to every one. This forum is not subject to evaluation or personal appreciation but must be connected to regularly.

The student may proceed to self-evaluation tests at any time since possible answers are directly available on the web.

Reading guide

It is very easy to surf through the pages of the course, from the title page (, after the attentive reading of the first indications.The interface of the remote teaching is made up of three distinct parts :

The first part (A), in the upper part of the screen, allow the navigation through the course with the help of several buttons. Right buttons include the and the lesson's list. Left buttons are related to the students . In the center a button guides us towards an external link to a glossary of hydrology.

Once a chapter has been selected using the adequate button, its contents is display in the part B and the main text in the part C .
Note that the part A has some new buttons which are specific to each chapter: informations on , a , a general , some , of general interest or the (multiple-choice questions).


The part below describe in a more precise way the computer contents and the teaching goals of each button.

: Here we are ! Short description on how to use this virtual course and recommendations can be found.

Read all informations carefully !

: Gives access to the contents of the course. It's the way to come in in this course.

Question, make comments or answer questions of your comrades and all that in a personalized or anonymous way (by using a nickname).

The forum is a place of exchanges and discussions. Consequently, this makes sense only if you adopt, just like the teacher and his collaborators, a participative approach. Professors and assistants guarantee you that your questions will be answered within 24 hours.

: Specifies the e-mail of professors as well as their assistants.

These people can be contacted directly by electronic mail. However it is strongly recommended to use the forum for teaching and scientific's questions.

: Guides towards the international glossary of hydrology (UNESCO).

These links provide a welcome complement to the course, consult it in oportune time.

: Describes the objectives of each chapter in form of precise goals you have to reach.

These objectives can also be used to you as self-rating. " Did I achieve the goals the teacher fixes me ? ".

: Gives access to a short summary of the chapter.

: Gives access to the general index of the course classified either alphabetically or by chapters.

The index links to the requested word directly in the text where it is defined using the international glossary of hydrology. This definition can be activated by scrolling over the wished term with the mouse.

Certain animations require the a plug-in's download. Follow the recommendations made on this subject.

: Offers some exercises relating to the chapters with tips when those are necessary for the resolution. Numerical answers are displayed on part C of the screen.

Note that links are available between key-words in the exercises and their explanation in texts.

Don't do exercises partially !

: Allows you to display some general questions of comprehension concerning each matter treated.

: Allows you to make a fast evaluation of your knowledge by solving various multiple choices questions.

The answers to these questions are displayed in the right part of the screen. It is however advised to install on your computer the QuizViewer software which on the one hand will enable you to obtain your score and on the other hand will deliver some comments to you on the answers.



Students concerned by this new pedagogical approach of studies must carefully read the recommendations hereafter to fully benefit from this new teaching facility.

Respect the program : it is not recommended to go ahead in chapters or to cumulate delays either for the chapters of the course, the exercises, questions and related self-evaluation tests.
Consider the recommended references (bibliography) recommended as a complement to the text on the Internet. Use the facilities of the links, glossaries and index of the Web.
Regularly, really and totally do all exercises related to the chapter.
Self-answer questions, check the answers all proposed within the text presented on the Internet.
Proceed to the self-evaluation tests at the end of each chapter. Check the answers and search the potential differences within the texts available. Then, check the answers given by the teaching staff.
Do not hesitate to use the forum ! Be precise and short in asking questions and answering to comments.
Contact the responsible of the course or any person from the teaching staff for general topics that are not strictly related to a proper understanding of the course.